Срби у Румунији

Карашевци (Крашовани) – заборављени банатски Срби

У источном, планинском делу Баната, у Румунији, у долини реке Караша налази се седам села код града Решице у којима живе Срби католици, познатији под именом Крашовани. Затворена етничка група која живи у селима Клокотић, Јабанче, Карашево, Лупак, Нермет (Нермић), Рафних (Равник) и Водник одавно је привукла пажњу научника етнолога и лингвиста ради одгонетања њиховог порекла. Крашевци, етничка група, посебно је занимљива због одржања језика и обичаја у етничком окружењу Румуна.

Према расположивој архивској грађи, Крашевци потичу из источне Србије. Доселили су се из црноречког краја код Зајечара после Косовске битке, када су турске ордије узнемиравале становништво на широком простору од Косова до Црног мора јужно од Дунава. Продор турских пљачкашких чета натерао је становништво на сеобу у Влашку и Угарску, те су Срби Црноречани прешли у Банат и населили се у Рекашу, Липови, Лугошу и Карансебешу 1393.

Дошавши у Угарску, одмах су били изложени притиску од стране световних и духовних власти ради католичења. Једна група Срба која је од раније живела у Липову била је силом покатоличена за време угарског краља Лајоша Великог 1366. и ови су се временом хунгаризовали заборавивши језик и порекло.

Највећи број Срба, захваљујући бројним црквама и манастирима у Банату одржавали су своју народност упркос притиску Римокатоличке цркве. Тако су дочекали пад Баната под Турке 1552. године. Крашевски крај доспео је под управу темишварског пашалука делећи судбину осталих српских крајева. Налазећи се у саставу темишварског пашалука, крашевски крај је дочекао устанак Срба у Банату 1594. када је овај опустошен од турско-арбанашких ордија, вође устанка живе одране и спаљене, а у знак одмазде спаљене су и мошти светог Саве на Врачару да Банаћани виде ватру на којој гори њихов светац чији су лик носили на својим заставама. Пустошење Баната поред убистава, пљачке и одвођења у ропство нарочито је погодило Српску православну цркву. Цркве и манастири били су попаљени а свештенство и монаштво побијено. Народ је остао у духовном погледу препуштен сам себи.

Недостатак свештенства искористили су босански фрањевци који су се размилели по целом Османском царству. /…/ Следећи упутства Конгрегације за пропаганду вере, основане 1622. у Риму, босански фрањевци су по Турској ловили душе православних. Дошавши у опустошени Банат, где је српско православно становништво скоро три деценије било без свештенства и монаштва, где су се деца рађала и нису била крштавана, где су се младенци узимали а нису венчавали, где мртве није имао ко да опоји и где су православни свештеници наилазили ретко и у пролазу, фрањевац Марко Бандулашевић започео је свој мисионарски рад у селу Клокотићу. Већ 1628. писао је Конгрегацији за пропаганду вере у Риму да је у долини реке Караша превео многе Србе на католичанство и то у селима Равник, данас Рафник, Водник, Клокотић, Нермић, данас Нермет и Липа, данас Лупак.

Поред тога што су примили фрањевце, покатоличени Срби су задржали своје обичаје везане за православну традицију. Фрањевци их у томе, нису много ометали пошто су и сами потицали из таквих средина у Турској где се Срби католици. нису разликовали од својих православних рођака.

После 1717. када је Банат ослобођен од Турака и припао аустријској царској кући, настале су нове прилике за Србе католике. Заједно са аустријском војском стигли су језуити и католичко свештенство у великом броју, које је започело нов мисионарски рад међу паством. Прво су извршили реорганизацију црквене управе а затим почели борбу са народом око његових обичаја према ранијој православној традицији. Остало је забележено да су Срби Крашевци пружили жилав отпор увођењу новог грегоријанског календара, који су на крају прихватили после низа притисака тек за владавине царице Марије Терезије. Али и поред тога задржали су и даље богослужбене књиге писане ћирилицом и још дуго су славили празнике по старом и новом календару. Чак и данас поједини Крашевци, нарочито старији, не раде када су велики православни празници.

Нова црквена организација, календар и рад римокатоличког свештенства учинили су да се Срби католици у долини реке Караша за око 150 година отуђе од православних и издвоје у посебну етничку групу, која је постала позната под именом Крашовани или Карашевци или како они сами кажу Карашефци.

До првог светског рата, од 18. до прве половине 19. века, Карашевци су се сматрали Србима, писали ћирилицом и употребљавали српске књиге и држали се, упркос притисака, православних обичаја. После преуређења Аустријског царства у Двојну монархију 1867. и завођења жупанијског система у Угарској 1871. започела је хунгаризација католичког становништва. Захваљујући реткој мађарској популацији у Банату хунгаризација није могла да се спроведе међу Крашевцима, али тада се формирало Крашевско осећање етничког идентитета код великог броја становника карашевских села. После првог светског рата, Карашевци су након разграничења између Краљевиие СХС и Румуније доспели у оквиру граница ове друге. У административном погледу припали су жупанији Караш-Северин.

Углавном су наставили да живе конзервативно, без мешања са осталим етничким и конфесионалним групама. Жене се девојкама Карашевкама и на тај начин избегавају језичке, културне и друге препреке које погађају мешовите бракове. Захваљујући овој самоизолацији, после другог светског рата дошло је до новог процеса међу њима. Католички свештеници су покренули кроатизацију. Јавила се парализа њиховог етничког и националног осећања да су Крашовани и Срби. Данас о свом српском пореклу говоре само образовани појединци или људи из породица где су се задржали православни елементи породичне традиције дубоко утисли у њихову свест. О својој српској традицији говоре са поносом, нарочито о слављењу славе и наводе име свеца свог заштитника.

Римокатолички свештеници, школовани у Ђакову и Загребу су носиоци притиска ради њихове кроатизације. Они не само што се боре да своју паству убеде да су Хрвати, него се залажу да такав осећај идентитета одржи.

Јован Пејин

Извор: krstarica

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